Japanese Grammar:How Do We Use 「で」AND「に」Properly?


The answers are in the end👇

Particles are one of the most confusing aspects for the Japanese learners.

Here, you can learn how to use 「で」 and 「に」 in the sentence with the verb 「あります」.

The meaning of 「あります」


First of all, the meaning of 「あります」 can change depending on the context.

However, it generally means “be”, “exist”, ”have”…shortly “state of being”.

・机(つくえ)の上(うえ)に本(ほん)があります  (There is a book on the table.)

・Bさんは車(くるま)がありますか (Do you have a car?)

・自信(じしん)がありません (I don’t have confidence)

Now let’s talk about the particles.

Particle 「で」


The particle 「で」 is used to describe the situation which some ACTION/EVENT takes place.

Look at ①, 「マラソン大会」 is an event, therefor 「で」 is appropriate.

・公園(こうえん)でサッカーをします (I play soccer in the park)

・学校(がっこう)で勉強(べんきょう)します (I study at school)

・図書館(としょかん)で本(ほん)を読(よ)みます (I read books in the library)


Particle 「に」


How about ②? 「大阪城」 is not an event, neither action. It is a THING.

The particle 「に」 shows a particular place where THING exists.

・箱根(はこね)に温泉(おんせん)があります (There are hot springs in Hakone)

・あそこに山(やま)が見(み)えます (I see a mountain over there)

・近(ちか)くに何(なに)がありますか (What’s there nearby?)

So, 「に」 should be chosen as an answer.

Now you know the answer ③?

Is 「セール」 an EVENT, or THING ?

Definitely, it is an EVENT.

Therefore, the answer is 「で」.